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Human rights are commonly conceived and expressed as human freedoms. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (“UDHR”) says that every “member of the human family” has a kind of freedom and envisions “the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear.” Freedom, equality, and respect for human dignity are recognized as underlying principles of human rights.
The concept of “human rights” is multifaceted. Many scholars have attempted to provide a definition by describing two …